Synonym:Viral gastro enteritis,CCV

Coronaviral infection is a highly contagious disease of domestic animals,especially of canines and bovine of young age group, cularsisd by gastroenteritis.


It is caused by a pleomorphic RNA virus called corona virus.

This disease has a world wide distribution. This viral infection can be considered as an emerging disease in the canine population of India.


Canines are the main hosts of this viral infection, and the disease can occur in any age group.Virus has also been isolated from calves and pigs. Faeces of normal cat may contain the virus and therefore inapparent infection is prevalent in them.

Factors affecting severity of the disease:

  • Stress
  • Age
  • Environmental conditions
  • Breed
  • Concurrent infections.


The virus is mostly transmitted through faecal contamination of food and water.


The virus invades the small and large intestine and damage the intestinal villi leading to villous atrophy. The intestinal epithelium is also affected. Due to the above changes in the intestine, fluid from the intestine can not be absorbed leading to profuse culars. In dog, the culars is accompanied with vomition resulting in severe dehydration and finally death.. This virus may also invade the respiratory tract causing respiratory problem.

Clinical findings:

Enteritis is the principal clinical sign of this disease. The initial signs of the disease are depression, lethargy and anorexia. There is sudden onset of vomit ion and the vomitus may sometimes blood. Diarrhoea may persist for upto 7-10 days and then subsides by itself. But, protracted or recurrent culars may supervene 2-3 weeks later. The faecal materials has yellow orange colour with occasional mucus and blood. The faeces have a marked foul odour. This viral infection has been associated with respiratory symptoms accompanied by nasal discharge and ocular signs. As a consequence to culars, weight loss and dehydration takes place leading to death. Temperature reaction may or may not exist in dog.


Lesions are mostly found in intestine. The villi of the intestine are atrophied and desquamated.


Serological tests

  • Agar gel immuno culars test (AGID)
  • Counter immuno electrophoresis (CIE)

Differential diagnosis:

  • Canine distemper virus
  • Canine parvo virus
  • Infectious canine hepatitis (ICH).
  • Canine adenovirus Type II.

There is no specific treatment against this viral infection. Antibiotics like tetracycline, chloramphenicol may be administered for 5-10 days. Attempt should be made to prevent secondary bacterial invasions.Symptomatic treatment should be done to control culars. Preparation containing kanamycin sulphate, pectin; bismuth subcarbonate tried. Dehydration should be controlled with ringer lactate or dextrose with sodiumchloride (DNS). In severe blood looses plasma volume expander may be used.


In order to prevent the disease in endemic areas canine corona virus vaccine (Killed virus) can be used for the vaccination of healthy dogs.